Recommendation of high fiber diets have been proposed as a valuable strategy to reduce the burden of metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic-associated fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. In this context, gut microbiota has a pivotal role influencing host health. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, the main short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by gut microbial fermentation of fibers, appear to be key mediators of the beneficial effects elicited by high fiber diets. In her thesis, Melany Rios-Morales (UMCG), in collaboration with colleague Mara van Trijp (WUR), assessed the fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates and SCFA production in the gut, and the systemic metabolic fate of this metabolites to further understand the mechanism by which fibers improve host health. This can help in the further optimization of prebiotics as a simple, yet effective alternative to treat metabolic syndrome.